Document Type


Publication Date



Division of Psychology and Counseling


Graduate School


This article describes how older adults with life long deficiencies in self-esteem can draw upon their spiritual life as an ancillary source of self-empowerment in the counseling process. It explains how insight into the spiritual dimensions of five age related changes facilitates transcending shame as an older adult. It concludes by noting five stages through which older adults proceed as they find the source of their self-esteem first in God and gradually in themselves.



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